Looking at the barriers to SET women's advancement through a lens refined by our recent we see promising levers for change. The most obvious solution: sponsorship. Sponsors help their protégés crack the unwritten code of executive presence, improving their chances of being perceived as leadership material. Most important to the companies employing them, sponsors help women get their ideas heard.
The Enlightenment led to a fevered interest in deciphering the mysterious forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs and the cuneiform inscriptions found in lands described in the Bible as well as early forms of Sanskrit in India.Scholars 'cracked the codes' in the 19th century, opening up thousands of years of history.
Rock art is ubiquitous in southern Africa. It can be assumed that playing musical bows was a similarly widespread cultural tradition in prehistoric southern Africa. But discerning musical performances from other uses of the bow in the rock art is not trivial. Qualified arguments for musical performances therefore rest on the ethnographic record. Depictions of musical bows have been identified only in two rock art collections from South Africa and Namibia. In South Africa musical bows are known from the Maloti Drakensberg mountains in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, and Maclear District in the Eastern Cape Province. In Namibia, the musical bows have been identified mainly in the mountainous massif called Dâureb (its local Damara name) or Brandberg (its foreign Afrikaans name) and the surrounding region in northwestern central Namibia. The occurrence of musical bows in the rock art sheds light on some of the musical instruments that were used in the past and their playing techniques. This is important in music archeological studies, which involve the analysis of music-related artifacts or sound-producing artifacts and their cultural background from the archeological record, or the investigation of the effects of sound in past societies. Rock art is an important source that can be used in music archeological studies. Ethnographic information also gives another depth in describing musical bows and allows one to differentiate contemporary music cultures from the past.
Another site in the Maloti Drakensberg Mountains has a group of six depicted musical bow players (Lewis-Williams and Challis 2010, 2011). All the musical bow players on this panel are in a sitting position, and they are playing resonated bows (see Lewis-Williams and Challis 2010, 3, fig. 1). Their instruments are resting on their shoulders, and they are playing the bows using sticks. Previously, this painting was copied by George Stow in the 1870s, and he interpreted it as a lion hunt by men with shields (Lewis-Williams and Challis 2010, 2011). The site was later traced and reinterpreted. What was referred to as shields by Stow have been reinterpreted as honeycombs, and the bees and honey are understood to carry potency. On the same panel there is a tusked serpent emerging from the rock crack, which perhaps was summoned by the sound of the musical bows (Lewis-Williams and Challis 2010, 10). This panel shows the importance of sound production during ritual performances that were performed by the rain shamans or by medicine men. 2b1af7f3a8