In the spring of 1676, the tide turned. The New England colonies took the advice of men like Benjamin Church, who urged the greater use of Native allies, including Pequot and Mohegan, to find and fight the mobile warriors. As the combatants were unable to plant crops and forced to live off the land, their will to continue the struggle waned as companies of English and Native allies pursued them. Growing numbers of fighters fled the region, switched sides, or surrendered in the spring and summer. The English sold many of the latter group into slavery. Colonial forces finally caught up with Metacom in August 1676, and the sachem was slain by a Christian Native American fighting with the English.
Sixteen years later, New England faced a new fear: the supernatural. Beginning in early 1692 and culminating in 1693, Salem Town, Salem Village, Ipswich, and Andover all tried women and men as witches. Paranoia swept through the region, and fourteen women and six men were executed. Five other individuals died in prison. The causes of the trials are numerous and include local rivalries, political turmoil, enduring trauma of war, faulty legal procedure where accusing others became a method of self-defense, or perhaps even low-level environmental contamination. Enduring tensions with Native people framed the events, however, and a Native American or African woman named Tituba enslaved by the local minister was at the center of the tragedy.22
These essays fulfill this mandate admirably. Ramón A. Gutiérrez explores the complex story of the aristocratic Doña Teresa de Aguilera y Roche of seventeenth-century New Mexico, who, caught in the web of masculine honor culture, faced the Inquisition in Mexico City. At the same time she took advantage of her class, mistreating her servants and slaves. Kim Todt focuses on seventeenth-century New Netherland, further demonstrating that the status of English women did not represent women's experiences in colonial North America as a whole. Under Dutch law, women retained greater control over property and participated more fully in commerce than did Anglo-American women. Matthew Dennis and Elizabeth Reis return to Salem, Massachusetts, to examine the patriarchal role of witch-hunting in Puritan New England, then consider witch-hunting in African and Native American societies and the ways in which Euro-Americans used gendered accusations of witchcraft as tools of colonization.
As in Florida, the history of Native and African peoples elsewhere in North America was greatly shaped by the experience of and reactions to slavery. Many native people came to experience European slavery much as blacks did. Indians worked as slaves or servants throughout the North American colonies. Tituba, the slave whose confessions helped spark the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692, was a native woman from the Caribbean. Other slaves involved in the trials were black. Native and African slaves worked side by side and intermarried in New York and New England throughout the colonial period. 2b1af7f3a8