Large racial and gender wage gaps in the U.S. remain, even as they have narrowed in some cases over the years. Among full- and part-time workers in the U.S., blacks in 2015 earned just 75% as much as whites in median hourly earnings and women earned 83% as much as men.
White and Asian women have narrowed the wage gap with white men to a much greater degree than black and Hispanic women. For example, white women narrowed the wage gap in median hourly earnings by 22 cents from 1980 (when they earned, on average, 60 cents for every dollar earned by a white man) to 2015 (when they earned 82 cents). By comparison, black women only narrowed that gap by 9 cents, from earning 56 cents for every dollar earned by a white man in 1980 to 65 cents today. Asian women followed roughly the trajectory of white women (but earned a slightly higher 87 cents per dollar earned by a white man in 2015), whereas Hispanic women fared even worse than black women, narrowing the gap by just 5 cents (earning 58 cents on the dollar in 2015).
For example, NBER researchers Francine Blau and Lawerence Kahn found that education and workforce experience accounted for 8% of the total gender wage gap in 2010, while industry and occupation explained 51% of the difference. When it comes to race, sociologists Eric Grodsky and Devah Pager found that education and workforce experience accounted for 52% of the wage gap between black and white men working in the public sector in 1990, and that adding occupational differences explained approximately 20% of the wage gap. And NBER researcher Roland Fryer found that for one group of adults in their 40s, controlling for standardized-test scores reduced the wage gap between black men and white men in 2006 by roughly 70%.
When it comes to racial discrimination in the workplace, most Americans (60%) say blacks and whites are treated about equally, but opinions on this vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups. A new Pew Research Center report finds that roughly two-thirds (64%) of blacks say black people in the U.S. are generally treated less fairly than whites in the workplace; just 22% of whites and 38% of Hispanics agree.
I know that God is going intervene on his behalf because this is unjust and this man should be set free and DNA testing should have been used to prove his innocence. This has been going on two long , innocence black men convicted of crime that they did not commit, and society going along with killing of black men for no reason.
In addition to gender and age, the infidelity rate also differs by a number of other demographic and social factors. For example, cheating is somewhat more common among black adults. Some 22% of ever-married blacks said that they cheated on their spouse, compared with 16% of whites and 13% of Hispanics. And among black men, the rate is highest: 28% reported that they had sex with someone other than their spouse, compared with 20% of white men and 16% of Hispanic men.
Sonia Maribel Sontay Herrera is an indigenous woman and human rights defender from Guatemala where systematic discrimination against indigenous women has gone on for decades. Herrera has felt the consequences of these historical injustices since she was a girl.
Date Occurred: 02/ 16/198047 0 Flat Shoals Ave SE - Big Buy SupermarketAge:30 Sex: MaleRace: B Report Narrative: On Feb 16, 1980, Officer Alfred Johnson was working an off duty job at the big buy supermarket when two black males came into the store to rob it. One of the males had a shotgun, and the other had a .38 caliber pistol. Officer Johnson confronted the suspects and was shot by both males. He died later that day at Grady Hospital. The robbers fled the scene with cash and food stamps.
Date Occurred: 01/29/19782424 Piedmont Rd NEAge:53 Sex:MaleRace:White Report Narrative: On 01/29/78, Louis Zaglin was at a flea market at 2424 Piedmont Rd. when he saw a black male inside of his parked van. When he approached the van, the male shot him and fled the scene.
In 1890, the NWSA and AWSA merged into the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). It became the largest woman suffrage organization in the country and led much of the struggle for the vote through 1920, when the 19th Amendment was ratified. Stanton became its president; Anthony became its vice president; and Stone became chairman of the executive committee. In 1919, one year before women gained the right to vote with the adoption of the 19th amendment, the NAWSA reorganized into the League of Women Voters.
Wealthy white women were not the only supporters of women's suffrage. Frederick Douglass, formerly enslaved and leader of the abolition movement, was also an advocate. He attended the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. In an editorial published that year in The North Star, the anti-slavery newspaper he published, he wrote, "...in respect to political rights,...there can be no reason in the world for denying to woman the elective franchise,..." By 1877, when he was U.S. marshal for the District of Columbia, Douglass's family was also involved in the movement. His son, Frederick Douglass, Jr.; daughter, Mrs. Nathan Sprague; and son-in-law, Nathan Sprague, all signed a petition to Congress for woman suffrage "...to prohibit the several States from Disfranchising United States Citizens on account of Sex."
Many of the women who had been active in the suffrage movement in the 1860s and 1870s continued their involvement over 50 years later. In 1917, Mary O. Stevens, secretary and press correspondent of the Association of Army Nurses of the Civil War, asked the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee to help the cause of woman suffrage by explaining: "My father trained me in my childhood days to expect this right. I have given my help to the agitation, and work[ed] for its coming a good many years."
When New York adopted woman suffrage in 1917 and President Woodrow Wilson changed his position to support an amendment in 1918, the political balance began to shift in favor of the vote for women. There was still strong opposition to enfranchising women, however, as illustrated by petitions from anti-suffrage groups.
As a result of falling age-specific mortality, life expectancy rose dramatically in the United States over the past century. Final data for 2003 (the most recent available) show that life expectancy at birth for the total population has reached an all-time American high level, 77.5 years, up from 49.2 years at the turn of the 20th century. Record-high life expectancies were found for white females (80.5 years) and black females (76.1 years), as well as for white males (75.3 years) and black males (69.0 years). Life expectancy gaps between males and females and between whites and blacks persisted.
It has long been argued that hormones play a role in longevity. As described by Desjardins,40 the female hormone estrogen helps to eliminate "bad" cholesterol (LDL) and thus may offer some protection against heart disease.41 In contrast, some say, testosterone, found in greater amounts in males, may make men more likely to engage in violence and risk-taking behavior, especially if reinforced by cultural influences.42 Women may also gain an additional biological advantage because of their two X chromosomes. If a gene mutation occurs on one X, a woman's second X chromosome may be able to compensate. In comparison, genes on men's sole X chromosome may be expressed, even if they are deleterious without compensation.
Life expectancy at birth for whites significantly exceeded that for blacks at the turn of the 20th century (see Figure 2 and Appendix B Table B-1). At that time, the expected longevity of a white newborn girl exceeded that of a black newborn girl by about 16.0 years (with longevity measured at 51.1 years vs. 35.0 years, respectively). For newborn boys, the white advantage was 15.7 years (48.2 years vs. 32.5 years).
What accounts for the higher mortality, and subsequent lower life expectancy for blacks, and especially for black men in the United States? This has been a subject of research by medical and social scientists for at least a century, and the issue stands at the heart of the current public health agenda in the United States.55 One of the two primary goals of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate health disparities.
Mortality from most, but not all, causes of death are higher for blacks, and a number of researchers have investigated which specific diseases contribute most to life expectancy differences between the races. Wong and colleagues,56 for instance, recently calculated potential years of life lost related to specific causes of deaths for blacks and whites in the United States (Table 5).
Notes: Calculations adjust for differences between races in age, sex, and level of education; numbers in parentheses show causes-of-death for which blacks fare better than whites; and these estimates are for persons dying before the age of 75 years though the authors state that all results were similar when potential life-years lost before the age of 85 years were examined. Note that trends and racial differentials at the oldest ages (85 and older) differ as black mortality rates are lower than those of whites for both men and women in official mortality data from NCHS. See Appendix B Table B-2. 2b1af7f3a8