The law limits the length of pretrial detention from indictment to the conclusion of a trial to two years for most cases, but allows detention for up to four years for crimes that carry up to the maximum penalty (40 years in prison). The law sets two years as the maximum detention permitted after an appellate court vacates the judgment of a trial court. Nonetheless, prolonged pretrial detention was a problem. The law prohibits excessive delays by authorities in filing formal charges against suspects and in opening investigations; however, such delays occurred regularly. Due to the inefficiency of the courts, cases often took an excessively long time to come to trial; once started, trials often took an excessively long time to complete.
On January 22, the trial of the "bankruptcy mafia" commenced. A total of 36 defendants, including Goran Kljajevic, former president of the Belgrade Commercial Court and commercial court judge Delinka Djurdjevic, faced charges of bribery, abuse of office, and illegal bankruptcy. The government accused the defendants of operating a lucrative scam in which the commercial court would declare enterprises bankrupt and the Postal Savings Bank would provide cheap loans to favored businessmen to buy the enterprise's assets at a below-market price. The trial was ongoing at year's end.
During the year the UNMIK Office of Missing Persons and Forensics (OMPF) continued to identify the remains of missing persons in Kosovo. Since 2002 the office performed 571 field operations and exhumations, 66 of which took place during the year. The remains of over 3,800 missing persons were recovered and OMPF focused on establishing the identities of 1,500 sets of human remains discovered in Kosovo since 1999, along with the identities of approximately 900 sets received from Serbia since 2002.
By the end of the year, 455 unidentified bodies were under OMPF custody (397 bodies were exhumed in Kosovo and 58 were transferred from Serbia proper). Between January and August the OMPF received 180 positive DNA reports, representing 77 identifiable individuals. During the year the OMPF and the International Commission on Missing Persons worked on the identification of 61 cases of missing persons for which there were not enough blood donors to provide information for a match. DNA information and traditional methods were combined to confirm identification of remains. Nine sets of remains were returned during the year; identification of the remaining bodies was in process.
In June 2006 the Serbian government transferred the last sets of identified remains of Kosovo Albanian victims of the 1998-99 conflict found in mass graves in Serbia. These remains were returned to families for burial. Families of the missing continued to request that the Serbian government provide access to records that might indicate locations of additional mass graves or places where bodies may have been incinerated.
Four times during the year, officials from Kosovo and Serbia met in a working group on missing persons, chaired by the ICRC and under the auspices of the SRSG. Although a sub-working group on forensic issues met twice during the first half of the year and the parties conducted several teleconferences on forensic issues, hundreds of sets of human remains in the Pristina morgue remained unidentified.
According to the ICRC, during the period between January and August, 155 identified sets of human remains were handed over to families. Forty-one were transferred from Serbia to Kosovo (through the OMPF); 16 were transferred from Kosovo to Serbia (exhumed in Kosovo and handed over to families in Serbia), and 98 were transferred within Kosovo (exhumed in Kosovo and handed over to families in Kosovo).
According to election regulations, during political campaigns media must ensure fair and equitable news coverage and access to discussion and debate for all parties; campaign-related reporting must be fair and impartial; and debates must have politically diverse guests and audiences and impartial moderators. In 2006 an international judge ordered daily Bota Sot's assets seized and sold to pay $105,000 (72,000 euros) in fines for unbalanced coverage of the 2004 elections and a failure to ensure accuracy in reporting. A Bota Sot bank account containing $75,900 (52,000 euros) was frozen pending payment of the fine. No developments were reported in this case, and the bank account remained frozen. Bota Sot resumed publication in March after the paper reached an agreement with the Tax Administration for gradual payment of its tax debt.
On May 21, the government announced the formation of the Commission of Languages, composed of representatives from government ministries and the Kosovo Assembly, to supervise implementation of the language law that makes Serbian Kosovo's second official language and sets a 5 percent threshold for making a language spoken by an ethnic minority official in a municipality. The law provides that Turkish will continue to be the third official language in Prizren, regardless of the percentage of the Turkish population in the municipality.
The power-driven devices were utilized to remove plaque from model teeth in dummy heads. The percentage of residual artificial plaque after 2 min of supra- or subgingival instrumentation was calculated by means of image-processing techniques at four sites (n = 576) of each tooth. The Health-Risk-Index (HRI: spatter/residual plaque quotient) with the different power-driven devices was assessed during treatment.
I will present the first Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) global fit results obtained using the new Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool (GAMBIT). With GAMBIT we have analysed the GUT-motivated supersymmetry models CMSSM, NUHM1 and NUHM2; the weak-scale MSSM7; and a scalar singlet dark matter model. Our analyses improve on existing results in terms of the number of included observables and the level of detail in the treatment of these, in the employed scanning techniques and the treatment of nuisance parameters.
The type-I seesaw mechanism, able to explain the lightness of the three active neutrinos, requires the existence of exotic heavy neutral fermions, with a mass ranging from a few MeV to around a TeV. We propose a model with three such sterile neutrinos where the mixing matrices are parametrized using the Casas-Ibarra scheme. Direct dectection constrains coming from DELPHI and ATLAS among others have been implemented, as well as indirect constraints such as big bang nucleosynthesis, neutrinoless double beta decay and lepton flavour violation. Using the GAMBIT framework we then have performed global fits on the model parameters and looked for regions of the parameter space that are statistically preferred.
In this Masters thesis we have developed a faster way to calculatesupersymmetric cross sections at next-to-leading order (NLO) by usingmachine learning techniques. This method teaches the computer softwareto imitate the cross section function, facilitating the evaluation of alarge number of parameter points in a short period of time. Training iscarried out based on data generated with SoftSUSY and Prospino 2.1. Wehave used the phenomenological MSSM-24 as an example model with theproduction of gluino pairs as an example process.
The background event yields are usually estimated from simulation or with a separate background measurement, conducted in a control region where possible signal does not affect the measurement. However, simulated results always always rely on certain theoretical models and suffer from both theoretical and statistical uncertainties. On the other hand, measuring background from data is feasible only when there exists a control region that is similar enough to signal region but free of signal contamination.
Examples of recent applications of the embedding method are given, and a current project to apply embedding in a search of charged Higgs bosons in the CMS experiment is presented. An ongoing analysis is searching for charged Higgs bosons decaying to a hadronic tau and a neutrino. The embedding method allows estimation of the large background of standard model events containing a hadronic tau, using a data sample with muons instead of taus in the final state. The discovery of a charged Higgs boson would be a clear signature of physics beyond the standard model.
I would like to present my master thesis project, where I study the phenomenology of a supersymmetric model with sneutrino as the NLSP. I look at the tri-lepton signature, two hadronic taus and one lepton (electron or muon), which in my model comes mostly from slepton-sneutrino production. The aim is to improve detectability of this signal using machine learning instead of traditional cut-and-count methods.
The top quark is the most massive particle in the Standard Model and the precise measurement of it mass could be the key to unveil new physics. The aim of the analysis is to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement by avoiding the modelling of the hadronic decay of the W from the top events. By using the di-lepton channel and, in particular, 5 leptonic observables sensible to the top quark mass (pT(l+), pT(l+l-), pT(l+)+pT(l-), M(l+l-) and E(l+) + E(l-)), the pole mass can be calculated with high precision with template fits with the ATLAS Run-2 data.
When designing and selecting future collider projects, it is important to understand the physics potential of the different alternatives. Here, we investigate the naturalness reach of the International Linear Collider (ILC) in simple constrained supersymmetric models, and compare it to the reach of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), based on the results in 1. The reach is quantified both in terms of the range of naturalness covered, given by the Barbieri-Giudice measure, and in terms of the information gained about naturalness, quantified by the Kullback-Leibler divergence.
Two particular scenarios (parameter choices) for the Constrained Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) are studied, and one for the second Non-Universal Higgs Mass (NUHM2) model. We find that the HL-LHC in general has a higher naturalness reach than the ILC in the two CMSSM scenarios. However, for the NUHM2 scenario, it is the other way around. In this scenario, we find that the information gain from the 1 TeV ILC searches are over ten times as large as the information gain from the HL-LHC searches. Post HL-LHC naturalness scores below $c \sim 20$, or a tuning to no worse than 5%, are allowed. Thus, the particular variant of the NUHM2 model studied in this work motivates building the ILC. 2b1af7f3a8