Background: There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0-14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0-11 years old in El Salvador.
Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamin Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service.
Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1)
Results: The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0-11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadorian group of 0-11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively.
Malnutrition greatly affects homeless children and 14% of children in the country experience growth stunting. Without proper food or shelter, many do not attend school because they simply cannot get there or afford it. Almost 25% of school-aged children do not attend school and roughly 10% work as child laborers. Inadequate education leads to a lack of opportunities within the country cementing these children in the cycle of poverty.
Like neighboring countries, El Salvador has made education reforms in order to combat the high dropout rate and educational gaps, but it has not necessarily helped impoverished families. In fact, more than 30% of children cannot afford to attend secondary education. Instead, they must work to help their family survive. In rural areas, that number doubles with children starting work at age 6 on average. Families in this position survive off of $1 a day if they are lucky.
Minors between the ages of 5 and 17 make up 1.8 million individuals working in El Salvador. The conditions are dangerous, but impoverished families often do not have a choice. It is either starve and send their children to school or eat for the day and send them to work. Child poverty in El Salvador begins at a young age and the cycle is exceedingly hard to break.
Accessing health care is rare even with El Salvador battling rising cases of HIV/AIDS. Children are at high risk due to how easy it is for the disease to transmit from a mother to a newborn or young child. Currently, there are 29,000 children and adults with the disease, but more than half of the cases are undeclared especially within rural populations. Treatment is only available in the capital and provided by third parties. Without money to afford treatment or even travel, impoverished children who experience disease do not often have a chance to obtain treatment.
A variety of charities are aiming to help reduce child poverty in El Salvador. Save the Children is a nonprofit that has teams all over the world helping children in need. Its team in El Salvador has protected more than 14,000 children from violence and helped almost 130,000 moms and newborns with vital health and care to successfully lower the infant death rate. By creating preschool programs, the organization has helped hundreds get a headstart in their education. It provides details about its efforts on its website
A recent police report in El Salvador shows that an average of 1.5 children were murdered every day last year, an illustration of how an intense gang conflict and generalized violence are impacting the country's youngest and most vulnerable populations.
The police report provides hard data on the violence Salvadoran children are exposed to on a daily basis. Between 14,000 and 15,000 students dropped out of school in 2016 because of the threat of violence, according to government officials.
The country's street gangs play a major role in inducing this climate of fear. Police officials and teachers told Spanish news agency EFE in early January that gangs are sending their youth members into the school system in order to recruit other students to start peddling drugs. Meanwhile in neighboring Honduras, gangs have been known to recruit children as young as six years old.
Authorities in El Salvador have previously used the gangs' recruitment in schools as justification for lowering the legal age of adulthood so that minors could be prosecuted as adults. These measures wouldn't have a major impact on reducing insecurity among school-aged children, however. Given the generalized violence that is afflicting the country as a whole, it's unlikely the homicide rate for minors will drop without a corresponding decline across other age groups as well.
El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. Over the past decade it has made significant progress in reducing food insecurity and malnutrition, with the rate of stunting (low height for age) in children under 5 dropping from 19 to 14 percent between 2008 and 2014. Acute malnutrition levels remain low at 2 percent.
Apart from Lou Salvador Jr., he also fathered the actors Alona Alegre, Leroy Salvador (director, producer and politician), the eldest of the Salvador siblings, Mina Aragon, Phillip Salvador, Ross Rival, Emil Salvador, and Jumbo Salvador. Jobelle Salvador and Deborah Sun (daughters of Leroy Salvador), Ethan Salvador (son of Emil Salvador), Joshua Aquino (son of Phillip Salvador and Kris Aquino), and Maja Salvador (daughter of Ross Rival) are his grandchildren. Analain Salvador and Ashton Salvador (grandchildren of Alona Alegre) are his great grandchildren. Singer Juan Miguel Salvador (father of actress Janella Salvador) is the grandson of Lou Salvador's brother Pedro Salvador.
According to Contreras and other sources, she, her siblings and nine other children were seized in 1982 as the U.S.-trained anti-guerrilla Atlacatl battalion clashed with rebels. A helicopter took away the boys, while the girls were driven away in trucks.
Over the past 20 years, human-rights group Probusqueda has received 921 reports of children who went missing during the war, with many killed in combat and others orphaned when their parents died. The human rights group has identified the parents of 382 of the missing through DNA tests, and of those, 235 have reunited with their families. Another 95 are waiting to meet their parents, while 52 have been found dead. The majority of the cases, 529, remain unsolved.
Over the past four years, the Norwegian Refugee Council has interviewed more than 5,000 households in communities affected by violence in Honduras and El Salvador, to identify children out of school and promote educational opportunities in order to help them to return to education.
Figures also show a worrying dropout rate. Almost one in three children in Honduras and El Salvador drops out of school before completing secondary school. There is a particularly high dropout rate of eleven year olds, coinciding with the age range in at which human rights violations increase. As children reach puberty, gangs are more likely to want to recruit or abuse them.
NRC, with the support from the European Union, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and NORAD, is ensuring that thousands of displaced children and those at risk of displacement in Honduras and El Salvador can access school.
How many children could benefit if El Salvador were to fully commit its available resources to the right to education? And if El Salvador used its income as efficiently as the best performing country in its income bracket? We calculate that around 132,350 more children would have access to primary education. Meanwhile, a little over 237,200 more children would receive secondary school education.
If El Salvador fully committed its available resources, around 132,350 more children could have access to primary education, and a little over 237,200 more children could receive secondary school education
Although the findings have been structured in a conclusive manner, the motivations to migrate and the various factors that influence them are not unique and mutually exclusive. Rather, these motivations are largely interconnected and come into play simultaneously. Therefore, it is imperative that the Salvadorian state, local governments and civil society organizations understand the complexity of migration processes involving children. In this way, this paper recommends that multi-level strategies that articulate the roles of each of these actors be established to ensure that the various dimensions of migration are addressed in an effective manner. The goal of these efforts is to create long-term solutions that lead to transformation in the contexts where children live and interact in El Salvador and throughout the rest of the Northern Triangle of Central America.
Newly elected Salvadoran president Mauricio Funes and his administration have an opportunity to break with tradition and improve the lives of the families who make the profound sacrifices necessary to attain the coveted remittances. Undeniably, remittances have become the mainstay of the Salvadoran economy, as they have in many other countries in the hemisphere. But the fact that children like Daniel are overwhelmed to the point that they cannot focus on school, socially isolate themselves, and have suicidal thoughts should serve as a warning that the negative effects of family separation may ultimately outweigh the benefits of remittances. 2b1af7f3a8