We maintain Global Food Safety Initiative Certification at all applicable facilities. GFSI certification is the industry-leading standard driving continuous improvement in food safety and quality management systems globally.
Most foodborne illnesses are not associated with recognized outbreaks. Public health officials are using outbreak and other data to make annual estimates of the major food sources for all illnesses caused by these four priority bacteria. They are also evaluating methods to combine WGS data on isolates from ill people, foods, and animals with epidemiologic data to predict the most likely foods responsible for particular illnesses. Analyses of the major sources for all illness caused by a particular bacterium can help public health officials, regulators, industry, and consumers know which foods should be targeted for additional prevention efforts.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop the ability to survive or grow despite being exposed to antibiotics designed to kill them or halt their growth. Antibiotic resistance is a global health challenge spreading through people, animals, and the environment. Though the American food supply is among the safest in the world, people can get antibiotic-resistant infections through food. Infections with resistant bacteria cause more severe or dangerous illness than infections with nonresistant bacteria and often require more costly treatments with higher risks for side effects. Improving appropriate use of antibiotics in people and animals and strengthening food safety from farm to fork can help stop bacteria from developing resistance and can stop antibiotic resistance from spreading.
The Use of Drugs in Food Animals provides an overview of why and how drugs are used in the major food-producing animal industries--poultry, dairy, beef, swine, and aquaculture. The volume discusses the prevalence of human pathogens in foods of animal origin. It also addresses the transfer of resistance in animal microbes to human pathogens and the resulting risk of human disease.
Monitoring of drug residues. The book provides a brief overview of how the FDA and USDA monitor drug residues in foods of animal origin and describes quality assurance programs initiated by the poultry, dairy, beef, and swine industries.
Food safety is paramount to animal agriculture, assuring consumer acceptance and confidence in a market where competing proteins and other alternatives are emerging, rivaling food products of animal origin. Furthermore, issues surrounding animal welfare in agricultural livestock production have surfaced that must be addressed at all levels of food animal production, including youth participation in food animal projects.
Knowledge and mastery of the science of genetics, nutrition, management, handling, and environment in relation to the youth's food animal projects plays a critical role in the success of producing safe and wholesome food products for consumers. Therefore, the Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) mandates that all youth exhibiting food animal projects participate annually in quality assurance programming. OSU Extension provides the leadership for implementing quality assurance programs, in partnership with agricultural education and agricultural societies.
Youth who take food animal projects, by participating in science-based experiential learning activities, learn how to ensure that the products from their 4-H food animals are safe for consumers, and that their actions inspire general public and consumer confidence in assuring well-cared-for animals and quality products.
Assuring Quality Care for Animals merges the current state-mandated Youth Food Animal Quality Assurance program with animal handling, care and welfare. It expands the scope and breadth of curriculum that is already in place to address the critical issues of quality assurance, food safety, and animal handling and welfare. Components of this program will raise public awareness of the importance of animal handling, care, and welfare in not only farm animal production, but also in the companion and performance animal industry. Furthermore, this program will build a general understanding of food safety to improve the confidence level of consumers toward a safe, wholesome food supply.
The Better Process Control School (BPCS) provides training to help assure safety and quality of shelf-stable heat-processed low-acid and acidified foods such as salsas, pickled products, soups, broths, and pet food. UC Davis offers a 4-day course for operators, supervisors, auditors, academics, and government personnel who work with shelf-stable heat-processed low-acid and acidified low-acid foods regulated by FDA or USDA.
New food safety outbreaks, isolated events (for example, the 1999 Belgian dioxin crisis from contaminated animal feed), and emerging crises (e.g., mad cow disease) will arise from time to time and shock international food markets. When a new food safety hazard or event is first identified, countries take steps to gather information and limit the extent of the crisis. Later, as the event is resolved, countries may develop new protocols and regulations to prevent recurrence. These crises can initially be a source of friction but ultimately they offer opportunities for international collaboration.
During a food safety crisis, producers of the suspect foods may stop production of the foods or seek other markets, retailers must find other sources of supply, and consumers must find substitutes. As most foods are perishable or have a limited storage life, a major food safety event can be disastrous for producers, exporters, and importers. For example, a series of foodborne illness outbreaks from the Cyclospora parasite began in 1996 in the United States and Canada. The outbreaks were attributed to Guatemalan raspberries, leading to a severe reduction in demand across the Guatemalan raspberry industry and adversely affecting Guatemalan blackberry producers as well. California strawberry growers also lost millions in revenue when strawberries were at first mistakenly implicated.
The number of food safety-related trade disputes worldwide is unknown. However, since 1995, WTO members have registered in the meetings of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Committee of the WTO 108 trade concerns related to food and feed regulations as well as measures that are designed to protect human health. The SPS committee deals with measures designed to control animal and plant pests and diseases. These human, animal, and plant health measures represent a larger class of technical barriers to trade. However, only one food safety trade concern has ever advanced all the way through the SPS Committee dispute process to a WTO dispute panel. Most disagreements are settled among countries before this stage. The 1989 growth hormone ban by the European Union (EU) originated from concerns about the effects of growth hormones on human health. The scientific basis of the ban was later challenged successfully by the United States and Canada but the EU has still not lifted its ban.
Food preservation involves different food processing steps to maintain food quality at a desired level so that maximum benefits and nutrition values can be achieved. Food preservation methods include growing, harvesting, processing, packaging, and distribution of foods. The key objectives of food preservation are to overcome inappropriate planning in agriculture, to produce value-added products, and to provide variation in diet. Food spoilage could be caused by a wide range of chemical and biochemical reactions. To impede chemical and microbial deterioration of foods, conventional and primitive techniques of preserving foods like drying, chilling, freezing, and pasteurization have been fostered. In recent years, the techniques to combat these spoilages are becoming sophisticated and have gradually altered to a highly interdisciplinary science. Highly advanced technologies like irradiation, high-pressure technology, and hurdle technology are used to preserve food items. This review article presents and discusses the mechanisms, application conditions, and advantages and disadvantages of different food preservation techniques. This article also presents different food categories and elucidates different physical, chemical, and microbial factors responsible for food spoilage. Furthermore, the market economy of preserved and processed foods has been analyzed in this article.
Foods are organic substances which are consumed for nutritional purposes. Foods are plant or animal origin and contain moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, minerals, and other organic substances. Foods undergo spoilage due to microbial, chemical, or physical actions. Nutritional values, color, texture, and edibility of foods are susceptible to spoilage . Therefore, foods are required to be preserved to retain their quality for longer period of time. Food preservation is defined as the processes or techniques undertaken in order to maintain internal and external factors which may cause food spoilage. The principal objective of food preservation is to increase its shelf life retaining original nutritional values, color, texture, and flavor.
This review paper presents the classification of food items and discusses different physical, chemical, and biological factors of food spoilage. The basics and advancements of different trivial and modern food preservation techniques, which are attributed to impede food spoilage and to yield longer shelf life, are discussed here along with their mechanisms, application conditions, advantages, and disadvantages. This article also reports the global market trend of preserved and processed food. Figure 1 summarizes a flow diagram showing various categories of foods, components of food spoilage mechanisms, food preserving and processing methods, and global market analysis of preserved foods. This review offers the researchers, technologists, and industry managements a comprehensive understanding that could be highly useful to develop effective and integrated food preservative methods and to ensure food safety. 2b1af7f3a8