Surveillance at all levels of government, and its continued modernization, is critical for monitoring COVID-19 trends and identifying groups at risk for infection and severe outcomes. These findings highlight the continued need for community mitigation strategies, especially for vulnerable populations, to slow COVID-19 transmission.
As of May 30, a total of 1,761,503 aggregate U.S. cases of COVID-19 and 103,700 associated deaths were reported to CDC. Although average daily reported cases and deaths are declining, 7-day moving averages of daily incidence of COVID-19 cases indicate ongoing community transmission.¶¶¶¶
The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, case surveillance data represent a subset of the total cases of COVID-19 in the United States; not every case in the community is captured through testing and information collected might be limited if persons are unavailable or unwilling to participate in case investigations or if medical records are unavailable for data extraction. Reported cumulative incidence, although comparable across age and sex groups within the case surveillance population, are underestimates of the U.S. cumulative incidence of COVID-19. Second, reported frequencies of individual symptoms and underlying health conditions presented from case surveillance likely underestimate the true prevalence because of missing data. Finally, asymptomatic cases are not captured well in case surveillance. Asymptomatic persons are unlikely to seek testing unless they are identified through active screening (e.g., contact tracing), and, because of limitations in testing capacity and in accordance with guidance, investigation of symptomatic persons is prioritized. Increased identification and reporting of asymptomatic cases could affect patterns described in this report.
Abraham Lincoln High School is a comprehensive high school with a long history of high expectations and excellence. The goal is to provide a positive, nurturing school environment that supports high academic performance and high student self-image. We recognize that students bring their diverse experiences into the classroom, and believe instruction should be responsive to different student learning needs. In addition, Lincoln offers a rigorous AP and honors program, services for Special Education severely and non-severely impaired students, a comprehensive English Language Learner (ELL) program that prepares students to become bilingual and biliterate, Career Academies, a Wellness Center, Peer Resource Program, AVID, Step-to-College, and a wide variety of clubs, athletic, and other extracurricular activities. The Environmental Service Learning Initiative promotes environmental and social justice. We also feature community partnerships with 14 different community agencies. Our teachers focus on authenticity, relevance, enthusiasm, critical thought, and creativity, while allowing students to take pride in their success. We hold ourselves accountable to a culture of service and support. It means that school staff share responsibility for each student's success.
Alcohol was part of celebratory events and there was a social obligation to consume alcohol during these events . Some women noted that their partner or friends and family encouraged them to drink alcohol [50, 66, 70]. The acceptability of consuming alcohol in the diverse cultures and countries identified in the review created social pressures either directly from family, friends and community or indirectly through a feeling of obligation to consume alcohol while pregnant. In many cases, the women noted that they had consumed alcohol in front of family, friends and community, without receiving any negative feedback . In some cases, when the women refused alcohol, they experienced direct pressure to consume from friends and family . Women also reported consuming alcohol to maintain social connections with friends and family, fearing they would lose the connections because of their transition to motherhood . The consistency of this finding in the literature speaks to the powerful influence of the cultural and social context on alcohol use.
This notice reminds the NIH and AHRQ applicant and recipient community that applicants must use FORMS-F application packages for due dates on or after May 25, 2020 and must use FORMS-E application packages for due dates on or before May 24, 2020 (see NOT-OD-20-026 for details).
Abstract: Simple SummaryAnimal-assisted interventions (AAIs) include a wide range of activities aimed at improving the health and well-being of people with the help of pets. Although there have been many studies on the effects of these interventions on animal and human wellbeing and health, univocal data on the methodological aspects, regarding type and duration of intervention, operators, involved animal species, and so on, are still lacking. In this regard, several systematic reviews in the scientific literature have already explored and outlined some methodological aspects of animal-assisted interventions. Therefore, we developed an umbrella review (UR) which summarizes the data of a set of suitable systematic reviews (SRs), in order to clarify how these Interventions are carried out. From our results, it is shown that there is a widespread heterogeneity in the scientific literature concerning the study and implementation of these interventions. These results highlight the need for the development and, consequently, the diffusion of protocols (not only operational, but also research approaches) providing for a univocal use of globally recognized terminologies and facilitating comparison between the numerous experiences carried out and reported in the field. AbstractRecently, animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), which are defined as psychological, educational, and rehabilitation support activities, have become widespread in different contexts. For many years, they have been a subject of interest in the international scientific community and are at the center of an important discussion regarding their effectiveness and the most appropriate practices for their realization. We carried out an umbrella review (UR) of systematic reviews (SRs), created for the purpose of exploring the literature and aimed at deepening the terminological and methodological aspects of AAIs. It is created by exploring the online databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. The SRs present in the high-impact indexed search engines Web of Sciences and Scopus are selected. After screening, we selected 15 SRs that met the inclusion criteria. All papers complained of the poor quality of AAIs; some considered articles containing interventions that did not always correspond to the terminology they have explored and whose operating practices were not always comparable. This stresses the need for the development and consequent diffusion of not only operational protocols, but also research protocols which provide for the homogeneous use of universally recognized terminologies, thus facilitating the study, deepening, and comparison between the numerous experiences described.Keywords: Animal-assisted therapy; animal-assisted activity; animal-assisted education; dog; Horse; methodology
It is clear that robust and long term retinal service delivery modelling is required across NHS clinics in order to determine the current and future needs of local populations, so that there is no future compromise in the standard of service provision, including follow-up (FU) intervals and quality of intravitreal treatment administration. Amoaku et al. (2012)  produced a comprehensive list of changes that can be made in order to meet existing demand and needs of patients with limited resources and capacity. In that publication, the authors shared a number of service re-design case studies, e.g., virtual clinics. Virtual clinics usually consist of non-mydriatic photos of the optic disc, visual fields, and visual acuity measurements carried out by a technician, stored, and later reviewed by an Ophthalmologist . A virtual clinic can be within a hospital setting or in a location within the community. If it is located in the community then patients are shifted from a hospital setting where treatment (or a follow-up routine appointment) is provided out in the community, thus releasing the pressure on hospitals. A number of other authors have presented similar models (including virtual clinics) of dealing with capacity constraints [14,15,16,17,18].
A constraint on modelling analysis is the recognition of essential resources that are required in order for an event to happen. For example, it is not possible for a clinic to start without a clinician. The model only starts a clinic when all the resources required are available. Intravitreal services are complex with many hundreds of variables/constraints. The ability to deal with these complex constraints simply does not exist in excel or any other modelling approaches. Using the model it is possible to show what happens if there is a variation in the availability of resources/constraints such as the increase or reduction in the number of clinic rooms available, or the effect of an absent clinician. Given the level of complexity and value of intravitreal services, it is extremely important to ensure that model outputs are robust and accurate.
The Student Charter assumes and acknowledges that students are active participants in the learning process and that they have responsibilities to the institution and the international community of scholars. The University expects that students will act at all times in a way that demonstrates respect for the rights of other students and staff so that the learning environment is both safe and productive. For further information visit Student Charter -policies-and-guidelines/student-policies-and-guidelines/student-charter.html. 2b1af7f3a8