Nurses with higher degrees allow for specialization within the medical field. There are many specific nursing professions that can be separated into categories of care type, age, gender, certain age group, practice setting, etc. Nurses are able to specialize with a combination of these categories as well. There are also specialist areas such as cardiac nursing, orthopedic nursing, palliative care, perioperative nursing, obstetrical nursing, oncology nursing, nursing informatics, telenursing, radiology, and emergency nursing.
Areas of advanced nursing practice include that of a nurse practitioner (NP), a certified nurse midwife (CNM), a certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA), or a clinical nurse specialist (CNS). Nurse practitioners and CNSs work assessing, diagnosing and treating patients in fields as diverse as family practice, women's health care, emergency nursing, acute/critical care, psychiatry, geriatrics, or pediatrics, additionally, a CNS usually works for a facility to improve patient care, do research, or as a staff educator.
There are organizations that unite Japanese nurses like the Japanese Nursing Association (JNA); the JNA is a professional organization and not a union. Members of the JNA lobby politicians and produces publications about nursing. According to the American Nurses Association's article on Japan, the JNA "works toward the improvement in nursing practice through many activities including the development of a policy research group to influence policy development, a code of ethics for nurses, and standards of nursing practice." The JNA also provides certification for specialists in mental health, oncology and community health. There are other organizations, including some that categorize nurses by specialty, like emergency nursing or disaster nursing. One of the older unions that relates to nursing is the Japanese Federation of Medical Workers Union, which was created in 1957. It is a union that includes physicians as well as nurses. This organization was involved with the Nursing Human Resource Law. 2b1af7f3a8