The largest cohort of normal data on ventricular size and function in paediatric patients using the bSSFP sequence refers to a population of 141 healthy children collected in three European reference centers. All subjects were Caucasian and included 68 boys and 73 girls. Age distribution, body size and heart rate were equal between genders. Only 12/141 children were younger than 6 years .
Boys had larger ventricles than girls . LVEF was found to be slightly higher in boys (67% vs 65%; p 0.01), but not for the RV . Gender differences are more marked in older children, indicating that gender is more important after puberty and in adulthood.
Reference curves for LV dimensions and function in children, reprinted with permission from reference . Curves for boys are displayed in blue on the left, curves for girls are shown in pink on the right. Reference lines show the 3rd, 10th, 90th and 97th percentile. LV left ventricle, ED end diastolic, ES end systolic, SV stroke volume
Reference curves for RV dimensions and function in children, reprinted with permission from reference . Curves for boys are displayed in blue on the left, curves for girls are shown in pink on the right. Reference lines show the 3rd, 10th, 90th and 97th percentile. LV left ventricle, ED end diastolic, ES end systolic, SV stroke volume
LA and RA volumes show an increase with age with a plateau after the age of 14 for girls only. Absolute and indexed volumes have been shown to be significantly greater for boys compared to girls (except for the indexed maximal volumes for both atria) .
I am a size 12/14 and never worn a size XL ever but happy I held out for these, as they are a much better fit than the L, longer in the length and a more comfortable fit on the waist. The mermaid outfit will most definitely now be worn complete on my next holiday and girls outings ???
Attention deficit disorder shows both cognitive and behavioral patterns. To determine a particular PASS (planning, attention, successive and simultaneous) pattern in order to early diagnosis and remediation according to PASS theory. 80 patients were selected from the neuropediatric attendance, aged 6 to 12 years old, 55 boys and 25 girls. Inclusion criteria were inattention (80 cases) and inattention with hyperactive symptoms (40 cases) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Exclusion criteria were the criteria of phonologic awareness previously reported, considered useful to diagnose dyslexia. A control group of 300 individuals, aged 5 to 12 years old, was used, criteria above mentioned being controlled. DN:CAS (Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System) battery, translated to native language, was given to assess PASS cognitive processes. Results were analyzed with cluster analysis and t-Student test. Statistical factor analysis of the control group had previously identified the four PASS processes: planning, attention, successive and simultaneous. The dendrogram of the cluster analysis discriminated three categories of attention deficit disorder: 1. The most frequent, with planning deficit; 2. Without planning deficit but with deficit in other processes, and 3. Just only a few cases, without cognitive processing deficit. Cognitive deficiency in terms of means of scores was statistically significant when compared to control group (p = 0.001). According to PASS pattern, planning deficiency is a relevant factor. Neurological planning is not exactly the same than neurological executive function. The behavioral pattern is mainly linked to planning deficiency, but also to other PASS processing deficits and even to no processing deficit.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a neurobehavioral disorder which may potentially adversely affect children's wellbeing and academic achievement. The onset of symptoms is present prior to 12 years of age, and often the symptoms are evident in the preschool years. In fact, it has been suggested that screening for ADHD symptoms may be initiated as early as four years of age. Preschool children with ADHD have been shown to present with poor pre-academic skills and might be at increased risk for numerous school-related problems, including functional impairment during elementary school years and persistent poor academic performance thereafter. Although preschool years are characterized by rapid cognitive growth, preschoolers with ADHD may present with poorer cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. Due to the early onset of ADHD symptoms, exploring the cognitive correlates of this condition among preschool children is thought to be of notable importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate any association between ADHD symptoms and cognitive skills among preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a nationwide random sample of 4,480 preschool children. ADHD symptoms were assessed though interviews with parents and teachers based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Cognitive skills were assessed through a standardized school readiness test (A' TEST). Among participants, the occurrence of ADHD symptoms was 4.6% (boys/girls: 3.4/1). The presence of ADHD symptoms among children was inversely associated with non-verbal and verbal cognitive skills; specifically, with abstract thinking (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.30-3.00), language (2.36, 1.55-3.59), critical reasoning (2.58, 1.84-3.62), visual perception (2.42, 1.38- 4.24), and visual motor skills (2.61, 1.91-3.55). Children with ADHD symptoms were five times as likely to have compromised organizational skills (4.92, 3.04-7.97). Abstract thinking was the least affected domain
Governments, multinational organisations, and charities have commenced the distribution of sanitary products to address current deficits in girls' menstrual management. The few effectiveness studies conducted have focused on health and education outcomes but have failed to provide quantitative assessment of girls' preferences, experiences of absorbents, and comfort. Objectives of the study were, first, to quantitatively describe girls' experiences with, and ratings of reliability and acceptability of different menstrual absorbents. Second, to compare ratings of freely-provided reusable pads (AFRIpads) to other existing methods of menstrual management. Finally, to assess differences in self-reported freedom of activity during menses according to menstrual absorbent. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from the final survey of a controlled trial of reusable sanitary padand puberty education provision was undertaken. Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls from eight schools in rural Uganda. 72 girls who reported using the intervention-provided reusable pads were compared to those using existing improvised methods (predominately new or old cloth). Schoolgirls using reusable pads provided significantly higher ratings of perceived absorbent reliability across activities, less difficulties changing absorbents, and less disgust with cleaning absorbents. There were no significant differences in reports of outside garment soiling (OR 1.00 95%CI 0.51-1.99), or odour (0.84 95%CI 0.40-1.74) during the last menstrual period. When girls were asked if menstruation caused them to miss daily activities there were no differences between those using reusable pads and those using other existing methods. However, when asked about activities avoided during menstruation, those using reusable pads participated less in physical sports, working in the field, fetching water, and cooking. Reusable pads were rated favourably. This translated into some benefits for self 2b1af7f3a8